Programmiersprache: So sehen die Pläne für Scala 3 aus

heise online Newsticker - 24. April 2018 - 16:00
Scala-Erfinder Martin Odersky äußert sich zur Zukunft der JVM-Sprache. Die Basis ist das Dotty-Projekt, und Scala 2.14 soll einen sanften Übergang gewährleisten.

Vom Verbraucher zum Kunden: 20 Jahre Strommarkt-Liberalisierung

heise online Newsticker - 24. April 2018 - 15:30
Den Stromlieferanten wechseln wie das Bankkonto oder den Handyvertrag: Seit 20 Jahren geht das grundsätzlich. Immer mehr Verbraucher nutzen diese Chance zum Sparen – aber längst nicht alle.

c't Security jetzt im Handel

heise online Newsticker - 24. April 2018 - 15:00
Unser neues Sonderheft c't Security kombiniert nützliche Hilfestellungen für Ihre persönliche Sicherheitsstrategie mit einem Einblick in gängige kriminelle Aktivitäten und die Techniken, mit denen Experten den bösen Buben auf die Schliche kommen.

Elektro-Sportwagen: Volkswagens I.D. R Pikes Peak kommt mit 500 kW

heise online Newsticker - 24. April 2018 - 15:00
Mit seinem neuen Elektrosportwagen will Volkswagen beim "Race to the Clouds" in Colorado einen neuen Rekord aufstellen.

Experte: Kinder müssen in kritischem Denken geschult werden

heise online Newsticker - 24. April 2018 - 14:30
GAN-Erfinder Ian Goodfellow glaubt nicht an eine technische Lösung des Fake-Problems im Internet.

Hannover Messe startet mit Appell für freien Welthandel

heise online Newsticker - 24. April 2018 - 14:30
Die Hannover Messe 2018 widmet sich dem großen Themenbereich "Industrie 4.0", der Digitalisierung und Vernetzung von Produktionsabläufen. Bei der Eröffnung ging es zusammen mit dem Partnerland Mexiko aber um ein anderes Thema: den freien Welthandel.

Künstliche Intelligenz lernt von Hunden

heise online Newsticker - 24. April 2018 - 14:00
Manche Beobachter befürchten bereits, Maschinen könnten intelligenter werden als Menschen, einstweilen sind sie aber selbst Tieren unterlegen. Ein Team von Forschern will sie jetzt von Hunden lernen lassen.

2. IT-Sicherheitstag am 29. Mai in Gelsenkirchen: Jetzt Frühbucherrabatt sichern

heise online Newsticker - 24. April 2018 - 14:00
Unter dem Motto "IT-Sicherheit für die Praxis" können Sie auf dem 2. IT-Sicherheitstag am 29. Mai 2018 in Gelsenkirchen mit Sicherheitsexperten über Methoden, Strategien und Technik diskutieren.

Goodbye JavaOne! Wie 20 Jahre Geschichte einfach wegexpandiert werden

heise online Newsticker - 24. April 2018 - 13:30
Oracle verabschiedet sich von der JavaOne und kündigt mit der Oracle Code One eine neue Konferenz für Entwickler an. Für unseren Autor, den in der Java-Szene schon seit Jahren umtriebigen Markus Eisele, kommt das gar nicht mehr so überraschend.

init – der Wochenausblick: Brot und Spiele

heise online Newsticker - 24. April 2018 - 13:00
Die Woche wird dominiert von der Hannover Messe Industrie und jeder Menge Events im Rahmen der Gamesweek Berlin. Der Start des Hubble-Teleskops, der SuperGAU von Tschernobyl und Bishopsgate markieren wichtige geschichtliche Ereignisse dieser Woche.

Test: Epsons Fotodrucker Expression Photo HD XP-15000 bedruckt Fotopapier bis DIN A3+

heise online Newsticker - 24. April 2018 - 12:30
Der XP-15000 von Epson bringt mit sechs Einzeltinten Bilder in hoher Qualität aufs Fotopapier. Trotz des vergleichsweise geringen Preises von rund 300 Euro bietet der Fotodrucker zwei Papierfächer und Netzwerk-Schnittstellen.

Virtuell und interaktiv: die "Hologramm"-Assistentin Hologaito

heise online Newsticker - 24. April 2018 - 12:30
Arme, Beine, Kopf, kurz: wie ein echter Mensch sieht die virtuelle Assistentin Hologaito aus, statt wie Amazons Alexa oder Siri nur als Stimme zur Seite zu stehen.

Big Data: Wie die Erde war und werden könnte

heise online Newsticker - 24. April 2018 - 12:30
EarthTime zeigt, wie sich die Erde in den letzten 30 Jahren verändert hat und wie es weitergehen könnte, sollte die Menschheit unachtsam sein. Ein Big-Data-Projekt mit Videospiel-Technologie.

DrupalEasy: DrupalEasy Podcast 209 - Local Development Environments

Planet Drupal - 24. April 2018 - 12:19

Direct .mp3 file download.

Ted Bowman and Mike Anello, both back from DrupalCon Nashville, spend some quality time together to catch up on all the latest happenings involving local development environments. Ted hosted some BoFs about the topic, and Mike posted a comparison of some of the more popular Docker-based, Drupal-focused local development tools, so we figured it was a good time to devote an entire podcast on the topic. In addition, Mike and Ted name their "favorite thing" from DrupalCon Nashville.

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If you'd like to leave us a voicemail, call 321-396-2340. Please keep in mind that we might play your voicemail during one of our future podcasts. Feel free to call in with suggestions, rants, questions, or corrections. If you'd rather just send us an email, please use our contact page.

Dropsolid: Solr search and multilingual content in Drupal

Planet Drupal - 24. April 2018 - 12:00
24 Apr Make SOLR understand your multilingual content to improve the user experience Kevin VB Drupal 8 Apache

We all use searches multiple times a day without ever giving them a second thought. Browsing a webshop to find that one particular product, searching through forums to find a solution to your specific problem, or filtering stores based on your location to find the closest one, etc.

All of these examples require the same thing: content that is indexed in such a way that it can be filtered. In general, this is quite easy to set up: all you need is a database and a query to get you started.

However, what should you do if your visitors are more demanding and expect to be fed the right content when searching for plurals or a combination of words or synonyms? In the majority of cases, such complex queries fall beyond the reach of default search solutions, leading to dreaded messages like ‘Your search yielded no results’. This very quickly leads to user frustration and, subsequently, fewer conversions on your website. And this is only the start of it… What if your website also serves Germanic languages other than English? Suddenly, you are confronted with concatenations of words such as the infamous ‘Rindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertragungsgesetz’ or ‘Chronischevermoeidheidssyndroom’.

In this blogpost, we explain how you can configure Apache Solr to improve your multilingual content indexing and querying. We will shed some light on the ways indexing and querying is configured and can be tested, so you can make sure that Solr can understand your content and return a better result when users are searching through it. We will be using Dutch as an example, because of its compound word complexity. The underlying principles, however, are valid in plenty of use cases for other languages and search-related problems.


What are compound words?

First things first: let’s analyze our definitions. If we stick with the example of ‘chronischevermoeidheidssyndroom’. This word consists of multiple building blocks: the adjectives ‘Chronische’ and ‘vermoeidheid’ and the noun ‘syndroom’. In Dutch, it is perfectly acceptable to combine these elements into one long noun - and the exact same principle applies to German. In English, the direct translation looks very similar: ‘Chronic Fatigue Syndrome’. The only difference, of course, is those handy spaces in between the individual components! Most language processing tools split words by spaces, which makes it easy to search for parts of a search term, as they already appear split up in the text. In the case of the German and Dutch examples above, this isn’t so easy to do. Because of this added complexity, we will need to configure our language processing tool to understand what the possible compound words are and how they are combined. Luckily, there are certain grammar tools around that make it possible to tackle this added complexity through handy algorithms!


Getting started

First of all, we must make sure to install the necessary modules:

The Search API acts as a bridge between different search servers and the Search API Solr allows to communicate with a Solr server.
Once those modules have been installed, the most important one for multilingual sites is the Search API Solr Multilingual module. This module allows to connect with a Solr server with better support for non-English languages.

If you are using the 8.2.x branch of Search API Solr, you won’t have to download the multilingual module, as it is merged into the Search API Solr module.
Once these modules have been installed, you will be able to set up a connection to a Solr server using the Multilingual backend connector. We will not go any deeper into the whole installation process, as the modules all come with their own detailed installation instructions.


Configuring your Solr server for multilingual content

The multilingual Solr module also provides a download mechanism that generates the Solr configuration files that are needed to support multilingual content indexation. 
One of the most important files in this configuration is the schema_extra_types.xml file.

This file declares a field type called text_nl, which has some filters declared when indexing the content and some when performing a query on the index. Some names speak for themselves, for example:

  • MappingCharFilterFactory: this uses the accents_nl.txt file to map a certain character to another. Using this, we can filter out special characters. This means that  the search mechanism can still understand what you’re looking for if you search without using this special character.
  • CharacterWhitespaceTokenizerFactory: this tokenizer splits words based on whitespace characters - this way each word get indexed.
  • LengthFilterFactory: Filters out words based on the max and min values. Example: min=2, max=100 will filter out words that are less than 2 characters and longer than 100 characters.
  • LowerCaseFilterFactory: makes the token lower case.
  • StopFilterFactory: Filters out words which are mentioned in the stopwords.txt file attached to this filter. This list contains words with no added value, like eg. but, for, such, this or with.
  • SnowballPorterFilterFactory: The most important argument for this factory is the language argument, as this will define how the stem of a certain word is defined. As you can see in the example, we are using Kp and not NL for Dutch stemming. This is because the Kp stemmer better stems Dutch words. Want to know more about this algorithm? You can find all the details via this link
    In short, this filter will result in plural words being indexed together with the stem of the word. E.g. 'modules' → 'modules', 'module'
  • RemoveDuplicatesTokenFilterFactory: removes any duplicate token.

Some filters are more complex, so let’s explain them more in-depth:

  • WordDelimiterFilterFactory: this filter will split words based on the arguments.
    • CatenateNumbers: If non-zero number parts will be joined: '2018-04' → '201804'.
    • GenerateNumberParts: If non-zero it splits numeric strings at delimiters ('2018-04' → '2018', '04'.
    • SplitOnCaseChange: If zero then words are not split on CamelCase changes. Example: 'splitOnCaseChange' → 'split', 'On', 'Case', 'Change'.
    • GenerateWordParts: If non-zero words are splitted at delimiters. 'DrupalCon' → 'Drupal', 'Con'.
    • PreserveOriginal: if non-zero the original entry is preserved. 'DrupalCon' → 'DrupalCon', 'Drupal', 'Con'.
    • CatenateAll: If non zero words and number parts will be concatenated. 'DrupalCon-2018' → 'DrupalCon2018'
    • CatenateWords: If non zero word parts will be joined: 'high-resolution-image' → 'highresolutionimage'
    • Protected: the path to a file that contains a list of words that are protected from splitting.
  • DictionaryCompoundWordTokenFilterFactory: this filter splits up concatenated words into separate words based on the list of words given as dictionary argument. Example: 'flagpole' → 'flag', 'pole'
  • SynonymFilterFactory: This filter allows to define words as synonyms by passing along a list of synonyms as synonyms argument. This list is a comma separated list of words which are synonyms. This can also be used to solve spelling mistakes.
    • Example: drupal, durpal - Will make sure that when a user searches for durpal, results with drupal indexed will be returned as possible matches.

With this setup, you should be able to make your search indexing and querying a lot smarter. You can find different synonyms.txt, nouns.txt and accent.txt files if you search the web for your language. 


Where can I find these txt files?

Remember the section about the compound words? This is where this knowledge comes in handy. We spent a long time browsing the web to find a good list of compound words and stop words. To make your life easier, we’ve attached them to this blog post as GitLab links for you to see, edit and collaborate on. These files are for Solr version 5 and above and are for the Dutch, English & French language.

Pay attention, however! When adding these files to an existing index, you will need to use a multilingual server connection and then reindex your data. If you don’t do this, your index and query will no longer be in sync and this might even have a negative impact on your environment.


Testing indexed and query results

When you have installed a Solr server and core, you can visit the Solr dashboard. By default, this can be reached on localhost:8983/
If you select your core, you will be able to go to the Analysis tab.

This screen allows to perform a search and see how the index (left input) or the query (right input) will handle your value. It’s important to select the field type, so the analysis knows what filters it needs to use on your value.


Things to avoid

Let’s stick with our example of the Dutch word ‘Chronischevermoeidheidssyndroom’ and see how the index will handle this word. If you don’t configure Apache Solr with support for Dutch, it will only store ‘chronischevermoeidheidssyndroom’ in the index. If someone were to look for all kinds of ‘syndromes’, this item wouldn’t show up in the website’s results. Perhaps you would expect otherwise, but Apache Solr isn’t that smart.


What you do want to happen

However, if the index is configured correctly with support for Dutch words, it will return the following results:
 

 Name of filter

 

 MappingCharFilterFactory

 C|h|r|o|n|i|s|c|h|e|v|e|r|m|o|e|i|d|h|e|i|d|s|s|y|n|d|r|o|o|m

 WhitespaceTokenizerFactory

 Chronischevermoeidheidssyndroom

 LengthFilterFactory

 Chronischevermoeidheidssyndroom

 LowerCaseFilterFactory

 chronischevermoeidheidssyndroom

 DictionaryCompoundWordTokenFilterFactory

“chronischevermoeidheidssyndroom”, “chronisch”, “chronische”, “scheve”, “vermoeid”, “vermoeidheid”, “syndroom”, “droom”, “room”

 StopFilterFactory

“chronischevermoeidheidssyndroom”, “chronisch”,  “chronische”, “scheve”, “vermoeid”, “vermoeidheid”,  “syndroom”, “droom”, “room”

 SnowballPortretFilterFactory

“chronischevermoeidheidssyndroom”, “chronisch”,  “chronische”, “scheve”, “vermoeid”, “vermoeidheid”,  “syndroom”, “droom”, “room”

 RemoveDuplicatesTokenFilterFactory

“chronischevermoeidheidssyndroom”, “chronisch”,  “scheve”, “vermoeid”, “syndroom”, “droom”, “room”


The word ‘Chronischevermoeidheidssyndroom’ will eventually be indexed with the following result: ‘chronischevermoeidheidssyndroom’, ‘chronisch’, ‘scheve’, ‘vermoeid’, “‘syndroom’, ‘droom’, ‘room’. If somebody searches for any of these words, this item will be marked as a possible result.

If, for example, we run a search for ‘Vermoeidheid’, we should expect that our beloved  ‘Chronischevermoeidheidssyndroom’ pops up as a result. Let’s try this out with the Solr analysis tool:

 MappingCharFilterFactory

 V|e|r|m|o|e|i|d|h|e|i|d

 WhitespaceTokenizerFactory

 Vermoeidheid

 WordDelimiterFilterFactory

 Vermoeidheid

 LengthFilterFactory

 Vermoeidheid

 LowerCaseFilterFactory

 vermoeidheid

 SynonymFilterFactory

 vermoeidheid

 StopFilterFactory

 vermoeid

 SnowballPortretFilterFactory

 vermoeid

 RemoveDuplicatesTokenFilterFactory

 vermoeid


Eventually, our query will search for items indexed with the word ‘vermoeid’, which is also a token index when indexing the word 'Chronischevermoeidheidssyndroom'.


In short

When up a Solr core for multilingual content, it’s important that we provide extra field types that handle the text in the correct language. This way, Solr can index the word in such a way that plurals and concatenations of words are understood. This, in turn, provides a better experience to the user who is looking for a certain piece of content. With everything configured correctly, a user running a search for ‘syndroom’ will be served all compound words as a possible result, providing the user a better overview of your site’s content.
 

You can find our Dropsolid resources here: https://gitlab.com/dropsolid/multilingual-solr-config 

 

More blogs

CU Boulder - Webcentral: Drupal.org Should Take a Page from Apple During Major Releases

Planet Drupal - 24. April 2018 - 11:31

Before the critical security update to SA-CORE-2018-002 was released on March 28, I was doing the same thing as many other members of the Drupal community.

via GIPHY

I was also looking for any updates about the status of Drupal.org or the 7.58 update on various Slacks, Twitter and Reddit.  While there were a lot of jokes like asking everyone else to stop refreshing, there was also a lot of discussion about deployments and security.  In the Slack for people working with Drupal in higher education, several people thanked Michael Hess and the University of Michigan for the time he devotes to Drupal’s security.

People were asking a lot of questions about why the Drupal.org infrastructure wasn’t scaled in anticipation of the traffic.  Lots of suggestions for improving the experience were given including taking a page from Apple’s playbook to just take the entire site down and link just to the security update.  That one caught my eye. Apple doesn’t take their store down because they don’t know how to scale.

I’m not sure if this is where I first read about this, but Scotty Loveless was discussing this back in 2013.  At the time he wrote…

In 2013, do they really not have the web chops to update their store live?  Of course they do… 

I believe Apple takes down the online store prior to product launches because that's one of their 'Christmas morning' traditions.

They have done it as long as I can remember and will most likely continue long into the future.

In many ways Apple is more like a family than the average company.  Taking the key web properties down before major announcements allows more of their family to participate in the event.  Regardless of someone's role at Apple, they’ve contributed directly or indirectly to what is about to be announced.  They may not have been the lead engineer on the product or even have any idea what is about to be announced, but by doing their job well they enable other people to focus on a different job.  Shutting down parts of apple.com is a small way they all share in the excitement of what they are able to achieve as a group.

While most members of the Drupal community don’t contribute directly to the security team, everyone clicking refresh over and over again is trying to contribute to Drupal’s security by securing even one site.

I don’t follow Apple as closely as I used to, but it looks like they still take the store down before big announcements.

I might be too late to change the plan for tomorrow's release, but I would like to see Drupal.org taken down when the community is waiting for major security update like this.  Maybe respond to all requests for a URL on Drupal.org with a simple message like...

We’ve taken Drupal.org offline while we prepare to distribute a critical security update. 

When the update is available, it will be linked here.

While you wait, take a few minutes to think about the amazing community you are a part of who are likely all clicking refresh over and over again right now too.

Rather investing resources scaling Drupal.org up so it's able to run normally, let's embrace the fact that Wednesday is not normal and that we're all in this together.

I've started a thread on r/drupal/ to discuss.

Developer Blog

YouTube schaltet weiterhin Werbung vor extremistischen Inhalten

heise online Newsticker - 24. April 2018 - 11:30
Die Videoplattform bekommt ihr Werbeproblem nicht unter Kontrolle: Immer noch erscheinen Anzeigen seriöser Unternehmen wie Adidas, Amazon und Netflix vor Clips mit rassistischem oder antisemitischem Inhalt.

Drupal Europe: Program vision and update

Planet Drupal - 24. April 2018 - 11:12

During our first few weeks of selling Drupal Europe tickets, we were frequently asked about how our program is going to be structured. In this post we will outline the structure of our program and what it means for you.

Why change what works?Pedro Lozano (Drupalcon Barcelona 2015)

Our organizers are regular attendees at DrupalCons and other Drupal events. DrupalCon has always had a very high level of quality in terms of sessions, speakers and diversity.

At a DrupalCon you would usually see the following elements:

  • Monday — Summits for industry-specific groups such as Government, Media and Publishing, etc. (Separate ticket required)
  • Monday — Training in a small number of topics presented by experienced professionals in a hands-on manner for a whole day (Separate ticket required)
  • Tuesday to Thursday — Sessions and workshops organized into tracks based mostly on expertise area (Backend development, Frontend, Design/UX, Site Building, Project Management, etc.) as well as common shared interests (Being Human, Building Community, Core conversations, etc.)
  • Sprints for some attendees on all days of the conference but really in full swing on Friday with a great group of mentors available to onboard new contributors
  • BoFs which provide an unconference style setup for people to self-schedule topics and gather with other people around a shared interest
  • Social events including well-known gatherings like Women in Drupal and First-Time Attendee Social

To meet the high expectations of our community, we will keep as much as possible of what worked well. At the same time, we wanted to improve the structure of the program by gearing it towards people who are interested in seeing Drupal applied to specific industries.

Speaking with many past sponsors and attendees, we observed that the main difference between European and non-European events is our fragmented markets. With fragmented markets you have a lower chance of meeting with colleagues, business partners, and customers from your markets, which leads to lower sponsor involvement.

Even if the program is outstanding, lack of sufficient business support makes the event impossible to put on. The primary feedback from all parties was that a Drupal event this size works best as a melting pot of different aspects of Drupal. This is an event where developers, decision makers, project managers, and other roles can share their work and get inspired by real-life stories like Drupal used to control insulin pumps, usage on cruise ships and many more.

Since we cannot really influence the European geopolitical questions, we looked at other aspects to help unify markets. In Europe, Drupal has a strong base in government, publishing, education, social media, and more. There are even Drupal distributions for these purposes originating from Europe. Also we have historically held various business events like the Drupal Business Days as well as popular events like Drupal Splash Awards that have contributed to Drupal’s strong European influence.

Therefore we are incorporating these successful event formats into Drupal Europe.

How Drupal Europe will be differentFocus on industry verticals

Instead of having a specific day for industry participants, we decided to organize the whole event around where Drupal is applied. Drupal Europe focuses on the following verticals:

  • Digital Transformation + Enterprise
  • Government
  • Healthcare
  • E-Commerce
  • Higher Education
  • Publishing + Media
  • Social + Non-profit
  • Infrastructure
  • Drupal Community
  • Drupal + Technology
  • Agency Business

Instead of primarily focusing on the technology used (e.g. frontend), you will see frontend talks in the government vertical, the e-commerce vertical, and so on. A great React online store implementation would be presented in the e-commerce vertical. A compelling multi-channel civic project will be included in the government vertical. We believe this focus of the program will help attendees see the value Drupal brings to their respective markets. It should also compel potential speakers who may not use the latest bleeding edge technology but have deeper industry know-how and insights to present.

Having specific industry verticals allows sponsors to meet with their peers, partners and clients and exchange information about important industry topics and around Drupal and Open Source Software in general. Also they have the chance to learn from other verticals that might face similar challenges in their growth. As a sponsor you can buy sponsorship packages targeted specifically at the verticals.

While focusing more on business, we did not want to lose the spaces and opportunities a conference of this size usually provides to Drupalers. Therefore the last three verticals are more focused on us Drupalers and represent the traditional structure with a focus on community, Drupal technology, and agency business.

Working on the program at DrupalCon NashvilleExpertise tagging

There is of course not one true way to organize sessions, so while our primary organization structure will be verticals, we’ll also use tagging on sessions so you can identify content based on expertises like frontend, backend, and so on… We also believe it is useful to keep the varied lengths and formats including panels, longer workshops and short lightning talks in most verticals.

Given this direction, Drupal Europe will not host summits on Monday.

Expanded opportunities for contribution

However, we also want to strengthen the space provided for contribution. Therefore we will hold a contribution day with mentors already on Monday (additionally to the usual mentored contribution day on Friday). Our contribution room will be open on all days in the conference venue. Join us on Monday to possibly get your contributions committed at the conference!

Birds of a Feather and Trainings

We don’t see a reason to change the unconference aspect and will make space for Birds of a Feather sessions as much as the conference venue allows us to.

Some training providers reached out to us to discuss training possibilities for Monday. We have space for training on Monday, and are still in talks with possible trainers.

Social events

We are also looking forward to continuing the traditional social events and already have an enthusiastic sponsor lined up for Trivia Night.

We’ve seen the success of Splash Awards in various countries across Europe: The Netherlands, Germany and Austria, Norway, Bulgaria, Denmark, France and Romania. We are proud to host the first European Splash Awards! Winners from local competitions can compete in this international contest. It is not too late to organize your local Splash Awards.

One ticket for Drupal Europe gives you access to all this great content. Don’t wait — buy your ticket now!

Join the program team!

Currently we’re looking for volunteers to help the program team create the best possible program. It would be great if you have a background or strong interest in one of the conference verticals so we can reach out to the most interesting speakers.

If you are interested, please email us at program@drupaleurope.org

If you have valuable contacts that you think could help us make Drupal Europe an awesome event, please refer them to us or this blog post.

Nahles: SPD muss "digitalen Kapitalismus" bändigen

heise online Newsticker - 24. April 2018 - 11:00
Die Sozialdemokraten sollen die großen Digitalkonzerne zu solidarischer Verantwortung zwingen, findet Andrea Nahles. Während deutsche Einzelhändler Steuern zahlen, würden sich Superreiche im Silicon Valley die Taschen vollstopfen.

Lärm am Arbeitsplatz: Nicht auf Messung per App verlassen

heise online Newsticker - 24. April 2018 - 10:30
Am 25.4. ist der "Tag gegen Lärm". Lärm-Apps können nur eine erste Einschätzung zur Lautstärke am Arbeitsplatz geben. Das Problem sind Filter, die Umgebungsgeräuschen während des Telefonats unterdrücken und auch die Messungen unpräzise machen.